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What are Brushless DC motors

Ryan XieMarch 10, 2023

What is a brushless dc motor?

A brushless DC motor (Brushless DC motor) is a motor that uses a brushless converter to achieve synchronous rotation between the rotor magnetic field and the stator magnetic field. Compared with the traditional brushed DC motor, the BLDC motor controls the rotation of the rotor through an electronic controller, thereby avoiding the mechanical loss caused by brush friction and the electromagnetic interference caused by electric sparks, and has higher efficiency and longer life. life.

BLDC motor consists of three parts: stator, rotor and electronic controller. Several coils with the same number of phases are wound on the stator, and the electronic controller outputs timing signals to the coils on the stator, so that the magnetic field between the coils changes continuously with time, thereby driving the rotor to rotate. Compared with brushed DC motors, BLDC motors do not require brushes to be in contact with the motor shaft, so problems such as brush wear and carbon brush sparks will not occur, and at the same time, higher operating efficiency and more precise speed control can be achieved through electronic controllers .

What is the difference between DC motor and brushless DC motor? (Structure design)

There are some differences in the structural design of brushless DC motors from traditional brushed DC motors. The structure of BLDC motor generally includes three parts: rotor, stator and electronic controller.

Rotor design: The rotors of BLDC motors generally use permanent magnet materials, such as NdFeB, SmCo, etc. The number of poles of the permanent magnets on the rotor is usually equal to the number of coils of the stator to achieve synchronous rotation. In rotor design, the shape and field distribution of the permanent magnets also need to be considered to meet the specific needs of the motor.

Stator design: The stator of a BLDC motor usually employs multi-phase windings to achieve high efficiency and high power density of the motor. In the stator design, factors such as the number, shape, size and layout of the coils need to be considered to achieve the best electromagnetic performance.

Electronic controller design: The electronic controller of the BLDC motor usually uses a special chip or module to realize the control of the rotor. In controller design, factors such as control algorithm, power supply circuit, and drive circuit need to be considered to achieve efficient control and drive.

Compared with brushed DC motors, the structural design of BLDC motors has the following differences:

Brushless converter: The rotor of the BLDC motor does not need carbon brushes and commutators to change the direction of rotation, but uses an electronic controller to control the timing signal to realize the alternate work of the coils on the stator, thereby realizing the synchronous rotation of the rotor .

Permanent magnet rotor: The rotor of a BLDC motor generally uses permanent magnet materials to improve the power density and efficiency of the motor.

Multi-phase windings: The stator of a BLDC motor usually employs multi-phase windings to improve the efficiency and power density of the motor.

What are the advantages of brushless dc motors ?

The main advantages of BLDC motors over traditional brushed DC motors are:

High efficiency: BLDC motors do not need to use brushes and commutators, reducing mechanical friction and energy loss, so higher efficiency can be achieved.

High reliability: The brushless DC motor uses an electronic controller to control the rotation of the rotor, which reduces the problems of mechanical loss and carbon brush wear, and has a longer service life and higher reliability.

Low noise: BLDC motors reduce noise such as mechanical friction and electric sparks during operation, so there is less noise during operation.

Precise control: Since the electronic controller can precisely control the rotation speed and direction of the rotor, the BLDC motor can achieve more precise control when it is running.

Applications for BLDC Motors

Brushless DC motors (BLDC motors) have the advantages of high efficiency, high reliability, low noise, and long life, so they have excellent performance in many application fields. The following are some common application areas:

Industrial : BLDC motors are widely used in 3D printers, valve actuators, industrial machinery and other fields to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency motion control.

Electric tools: Brushless DC motors have the advantages of high power density, high efficiency, and long life, and are widely used in various electric tools, such as lawn mowers, electro-hydraulic pliers, and agricultural robots.

Smart home field: BLDC motors are also widely used in smart furniture, such as vacuum cleaners, household slide rails, smart kitchen utensils, etc.

Aerospace: BLDC motors are also widely used in aerospace, such as flight control, navigation and power systems.

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